Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2440/104548
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Type: Journal article
Title: The association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D₃ and D₂ with depressive symptoms in childhood - a prospective cohort study
Author: Tolppanen, A.
Sayers, A.
Fraser, W.
Lewis, G.
Zammit, S.
Lawlor, D.
Citation: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2012; 53(7):757-766
Publisher: Wiley
Issue Date: 2012
ISSN: 0021-9630
1469-7610
Statement of
Responsibility: 
Anna-Maija Tolppanen, Adrian Sayers, William D. Fraser, Glyn Lewis, Stanley Zammit and Debbie A. Lawlor
Abstract: Background: Depression in adolescence is common and early onset predicts worse outcome in adulthood. Studies in adults have suggested a link between higher total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations and lower risk of depression. Objectives: To investigate (a) the association between serum 25(OH)D₂ and 25(OH)D₃ concentrations and depressive symptoms in children, and (b) whether the associations of 25(OH)D₂ and 25(OH)D₃ are different from, and independent of, each other. Methods: Prospective cohort study with serum 25(OH)D₂ and 25(OH)D₃ concentrations measured at mean age of 9.8 years and depressive symptoms assessed with the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire by a trained interviewer at the mean ages of 10.6 years (n=2,759) and 13.8 years (n=2,752). Results: Higher concentrations of 25(OH)D₃ assessed at mean age 9.8 years were associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms at age 13.8 years [adjusted risk ratio (RR; 95% confidence interval (CI)): 0.90 (0.86-0.95)], but not at age 10.6 years [adjusted RR (95% CI): 0.98 (0.93-1.03)] and with increased odds of decreasing symptoms between age 10.6 and 13.8 years [adjusted RR (95% CI): 1.08 (1.01-1.16)]. Serum 25(OH)D₂ concentrations were not associated with depressive symptoms. Conclusions: This is the first study in children to suggest that the association between 25(OH)D₃ concentrations and depression emerges in childhood. The association is independent of a wide range of potential confounding factors, and appears to be stronger with greater time separation between assessment of 25(OH)D₃ and assessment of depressive symptoms. Confirmation of our findings in large prospective studies and trials would be valuable.
Keywords: 25-Hydroxyvitamin D; calcium; parathyroid hormone; child; depression; ALSPAC
Rights: © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Published by Blackwell Publishing, 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK and 350 Main St, Malden, MA 02148, USA
RMID: 0030042866
DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02518.x
Appears in Collections:Medicine publications

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