Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2440/106618
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Type: Journal article
Title: Heliox therapy in bronchiolitis: phase III multicenter double-blind randomized controlled trial
Author: Chowdhury, M.
McKenzie, S.
Pearson, C.
Carr, S.
Pao, C.
Shah, A.
Reus, E.
Eliahoo, J.
Gordon, F.
Bland, H.
Habibi, P.
Citation: Pediatrics, 2013; 131(4):661-669
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Issue Date: 2013
ISSN: 0031-4005
1098-4275
Statement of
Responsibility: 
Mina M. Chowdhury, Sheila A. McKenzie, Christopher C. Pearson, Siobhan Carr, Caroline Pao, Arvind R. Shah, Elizabeth Reus, Joseph Eliahoo, Fabiana Gordon, Hubert Bland and Parviz Habibi
Abstract: Background and Objective: Supportive care remains the mainstay of therapy in bronchiolitis. Earlier studies suggest that helium-oxygen therapy may be beneficial, but evidence is limited. We aimed to compare efficacy of 2 treatment gases, Heliox and Airox (21% oxygen + 79% helium or nitrogen, respectively), on length of hospital treatment for bronchiolitis. Methods: This was a multicenter randomized blinded controlled trial of 319 bronchiolitic infant subjects randomly assigned to either gas; 281 subjects completed the study (140 Heliox, 141 Airox), whose data was analyzed. Treatment was delivered via facemask (nasal cannula, if the facemask intolerant) ± continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Severe bronchiolitics received CPAP from the start. Primary end point was length of treatment (LoT) required to alleviate hypoxia and respiratory distress. Secondary end-points were proportion of subjects needing CPAP; CPAP (LoT); and change in respiratory distress score. Results: Analysis by intention to treat (all subjects); median LoT (inter-quartile range, days): Heliox 1.90 (1.08-3.17), Airox 1.87 (1.11-3.34), P = .41. Facemask tolerant subgroup: Heliox 1.46 (0.85-1.95), Airox 2.01 (0.93-2.86), P = .03. Nasal cannula subgroup: Heliox 2.51 (1.21-4.32), Airox 2.81 (1.45-4.78), P = .53. Subgroup started on CPAP: Heliox 1.55 (1.38-2.01), Airox 2.26 (1.84-2.73), P = .02. Proportion of subjects needing CPAP: Heliox 17%, Airox 19%, O.R. 0.87 (0.47-1.60), P = .76. Heliox reduced respiratory distress score after 8 hours (mixed models estimate, -0.1298; P < .001). The effect was greater for facemask compared with nasal cannula (mixed models estimate, 0.093; P = .04). Conclusions: Heliox therapy does not reduce LoT unless given via a tight-fitting facemask or CPAP. Nasal cannula heliox therapy is ineffective.
Keywords: Randomized controlled trial; heliox; bronchiolitis
Rights: Copyright © 2013 by the American Academy of Pediatrics. All rights reserved.
RMID: 0030033934
DOI: 10.1542/peds.2012-1317
Appears in Collections:Medicine publications

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