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Type: Journal article
Title: Effects of substitution, and adding of carbohydrate and fat to whey-protein on energy intake, appetite, gastric emptying, glucose, insulin, ghrelin, cck and glp-1 in healthy older men - a randomized controlled trial
Author: Giezenaar, C.
Van Der Burgh, Y.
Lange, K.
Hatzinikolas, S.
Hausken, T.
Jones, K.
Horowitz, M.
Chapman, I.
Soenen, S.
Citation: Nutrients, 2018; 10(2):113-1-113-14
Publisher: MDPI
Issue Date: 2018
ISSN: 2072-6643
Statement of
Caroline Giezenaar, Yonta van der Burgh, Kylie Lange, Seva Hatzinikolas, Trygve Hausken, Karen L. Jones, Michael Horowitz, Ian Chapman, and Stijn Soenen
Abstract: Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in the elderly. We reported previously that the suppression of energy intake by whey protein is less in older than younger adults. The aim was to determine the effects of substitution, and adding of carbohydrate and fat to whey protein, on ad libitum energy intake from a buffet meal (180-210 min), gastric emptying (3D-ultrasonography), plasma gut hormone concentrations (0-180 min) and appetite (visual analogue scales), in healthy older men. In a randomized, double-blind order, 13 older men (75 ± 2 years) ingested drinks (~450 mL) containing: (i) 70 g whey protein (280 kcal; 'P₂₈₀'); (ii) 14 g protein, 28 g carbohydrate, 12.4 g fat (280 kcal; 'M₂₈₀'); (iii) 70 g protein, 28 g carbohydrate, 12.4 g fat (504 kcal; 'M₅₀₄'); or (iv) control (~2 kcal). The caloric drinks, compared to a control, did not suppress appetite or energy intake; there was an increase in total energy intake (drink + meal, p < 0.05), which was increased most by the M₅₀₄-drink. P₂₈₀- and M₅₀₄-drink ingestion were associated with slower a gastric-emptying time (n = 9), lower ghrelin, and higher cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) than M₂₈₀ (p < 0.05). Glucose and insulin were increased most by the mixed-macronutrient drinks (p < 0.05). In conclusion, energy intake was not suppressed, compared to a control, and particularly whey protein, affected gastric emptying and gut hormone responses.
Keywords: Whey protein; energy intake; gastric emptying; gut hormones; aging
Rights: © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
RMID: 0030081215
DOI: 10.3390/nu10020113
Appears in Collections:Medicine publications

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