Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2440/112152
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Type: Journal article
Title: A new orthosis reduces pain and mechanical forces in prone position in women with augmented or natural breast tissue: a pilot study
Author: Armstrong, S.
Ried, K.
Sali, A.
McLaughlin, P.
Citation: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, 2013; 66(7):e179-e188
Publisher: ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Issue Date: 2013
ISSN: 1748-6815
1878-0539
Statement of
Responsibility: 
Simon Armstrong, Karin Ried, Avni Sali, Patrick McLaughlin
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Breast augmentation, post-mastectomy patients as well as some women with natural breast tissue, and lactating, women often experience discomfort in prone activities. Our study, for the first time, examines pain levels, mechanical force and peak pressure in natural, reconstructed and augmented breast tissues with and without a new orthosis designed for reduction of displacement, compression and loading forces through the breast tissue during prone activities. METHODS: Twelve females with natural, lactating or augmented breast tissue, and cup-sizes C-F volunteered for the study. Pain perception was measured using an 11-point visual-analogue-scale without and with different sizes/textures of the orthosis. Magnetic-Resonance-Imaging captured segmental transverse and para-sagittal mid-breast views, and provided linear measurements of breast tissue displacement and deformation. Capacitance-pliance® sensorstrips were used to measure force and pressure between the breast tissue and the surface of a standard treatment table. Measurements were taken whilst the participants were load bearing in prone positions with and without the orthosis. RESULTS: The new orthosis significantly reduced pain and mechanical forces in participants with natural or augmented breast tissue with cup-sizes C-F. Larger orthotic sizes were correlated with greater reduction in pain and mechanical forces, with all participants reporting no pain with the largest size orthotic. A size-3 orthotic decreased load on the breast tissue by 82% and reduced peak pressure by 42%. The same orthotic decreased medio-lateral spread of breast tissue and implant whilst increasing height. CONCLUSIONS: The new orthosis significantly reduced pain and mechanical forces in all women with natural or augmented tissues. Results are of clinical significance, as reduced mechanical forces are associated with greater comfort and reduced pressure and displacement which may lower the probability of breast implant complication. In clinical settings the orthosis is recommended for all augmentation patients when undergoing prone treatment by therapists and clinicians for improved comfort and safety.
Keywords: Breast augmentation failure; breast tissue mechanical stress; symmastia; pain
Rights: © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons.Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
RMID: 0030040621
DOI: 10.1016/j.bjps.2013.02.012
Appears in Collections:Medicine publications

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