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|Title:||An audit of patient-controlled analgesia after appendicectomy in children|
|Citation:||Paediatric Anaesthesia, 2016; 26(10):1002-1009|
|Rowan Ousley, Laura L. Burgoyne, Nicola R. Crowley, Warwick J. Teague, David Costi|
|Abstract:||Background: Patient‐controlled analgesia (PCA) is commonly used after appendicectomy in children. Aim: The aim of this study was to characterize the analgesic use of children prescribed PCA after appendicetomy, in order to rationalize future use of this modality. Methods: We retrospectively audited all cases of acute appendicitis over a 4‐year period in a single pediatric hospital, recording demographics, surgical approach, pathology, analgesia use, pain scores, and duration of PCA. We preplanned subgroup analyses for surgical approach, pathology, and intraoperative nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory drug (NSAID) administration. We subsequently identified a patient subgroup who were unlikely to require PCA and conducted a (2 months) prospective audit of such patients (uncomplicated appendicitis with intraoperative NSAID) having non‐PCA (oral) analgesia. Results: Of the 649 patients undergoing appendicectomy for acute appendicitis, 85% were prescribed an opioid PCA, 8% received an opioid infusion (younger patients), and 7% received neither PCA nor infusion. Of the 541 bolus only PCA patients, 49% had laparoscopic surgery, 36% had complicated appendicitis, and 49% received intraoperative NSAID (diclofenac). Mean (SD) duration of PCA was shorter with uncomplicated vs complicated appendicitis (21.9 ± 10.7 vs 32.8 ± 21.1 h, P < 0.001, difference in means [95% CI]: 10.9 [7.7–14.1]), and with intraoperative NSAID (23.2 ± 14.4 vs 28.4 ± 17.4 h, P < 0.001, difference in means [95% CI]: 5.2 [2.5–7.9]). There was no difference in the time to PCA cessation between laparoscopic and open approach. Morphine consumption and pain scores were lower in the early postoperative period for those patients receiving intraoperative NSAID. In the prospective audit, 44 of 69 patients had uncomplicated appendicitis. Thirty‐eight of these were prescribed oral analgesia and none required any parenteral opioid or acute pain service intervention postoperatively. Parental satisfaction level was high (>90%) with oral analgesia. Conclusions: It is feasible that children with uncomplicated appendicitis given intraoperative NSAID can be successfully managed without PCA.|
|Keywords:||Appendectomy; appendicitis; analgesia; patient‐controlled; acute pain; laparoscopy|
|Rights:||© 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.|
|Appears in Collections:||Paediatrics publications|
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