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|Title:||Investigation into the intracellular fates, speciation and mode of action of selenium-containing neuroprotective agents using XAS and XFM|
|Citation:||BBA - General Subjects, 2018; 1862(11):2393-2404|
|Jason L. Wedding, Barry Lai, Stefan Vogt, Hugh H. Harris|
|Abstract:||Background: A variety of selenium compounds have been observed to provide protection against oxidative stress, presumably by mimicking the mechanism of action of the glutathione peroxidases. However, the selenium chemistry that underpins the action of these compounds has not been unequivocally established. Methods: The synchrotron based techniques, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence microscopy were used to examine the cellular speciation and distribution of selenium in SH-SY5Y cells pretreated with one of two diphenyl diselenides, or ebselen, followed by peroxide insult. Results: Bis(2-aminophenyl)diselenide was shown to protect against oxidative stress conditions which mimic ischemic strokes, while its nitro analogue, bis(2-nitrophenyl)diselenide did not. This protective activity was tentatively assigned to the reductive cleavage of bis(2-aminophenyl)diselenide inside human neurocarcinoma cells, SH-SY5Y, while bis(2-nitrophenyl)diselenide remained largely unchanged. The distinct chemistries of the related compounds were traced by the changes in selenium speciation in bulk pellets of treated SH-SY5Y cells detected by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Further, bis(2-aminophenyl)diselenide, like the known stroke mitigation agent ebselen, was observed by X-ray fluorescence imaging to penetrate into the nucleus of SH-SY5Y cells while bis(2-nitrophenyl)diselenide was observed to be excluded from the nuclear region. Conclusions: The differences in activity were thus attributed to the varied speciation and cellular localisation of the compounds, or their metabolites, as detected by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence microscopy. Significance: The work is significant as it links, for the first time, the protective action of selenium compounds against redox stress with particular chemical speciation using a direct measurement approach.|
|Keywords:||Selenium; diphenyl diselenide; ebselen; oxidative stress; X-ray absorption spectroscopy; X-ray fluorescence microscopy|
|Rights:||© 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.|
|Appears in Collections:||Chemistry publications|
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