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Type: Journal article
Title: Impact of day-of-injury alcohol consumption on outcomes after traumatic brain injury: a meta-analysis
Author: Mathias, J.
Osborn, A.
Citation: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 2018; 28(6):997-1018
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Issue Date: 2018
ISSN: 0960-2011
Statement of
J.L. Mathias and A.J. Osborn
Abstract: Although a known risk factor for traumatic brain injury (TBI), alcohol has been found to both promote and protect against secondary brain damage. However, it is presently unclear whether the cognitive, psychological and medical/functional outcomes of adults who have consumed alcohol prior to sustaining a TBI differ from those who have not. This meta-analysis examined the outcomes of groups that differed in terms of their day-of-injury (DOI) blood alcohol levels (BALs) by comparing positive with zero BAL (BAL+/BAL-) and high with low BAL (BALhigh/BALlow) samples. The PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Scopus databases were searched from inception until the end of March 2015. Hedge's g effects (continuous data) and odds ratios (categorical data) were calculated for 27 studies that compared either the outcomes of BAL+ and BAL- groups or BALhigh and BALlow groups. BAL+ was associated with significantly poorer cognitive outcomes (overall and on general tests) and higher levels of disability, and BALhigh was associated with shorter stays in intensive care. More generally, however, most effect sizes were small to low-moderate in size, non-significant and inconsistent in their direction. Although DOI alcohol consumption increases the risk of sustaining a TBI, it is not consistently associated with better or worse outcomes, other than subtle cognitive deficits; the source of which remains to be determined.
Keywords: Traumatic brain injury; blood alcohol; alcohol consumption; intoxication; outcome; meta-analysis
Rights: © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.
RMID: 0030054066
DOI: 10.1080/09602011.2016.1224190
Appears in Collections:Psychology publications

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