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dc.contributor.authorNarayan, D.en
dc.contributor.authorAo, J.en
dc.contributor.authorWood, J.en
dc.contributor.authorCasson, R.en
dc.contributor.authorChidlow, G.en
dc.identifier.citationBMC Neuroscience, 2019; 20(1):46-1-46-17en
dc.description.abstractBackground: The Pde6brd1 (Rd1) mouse is widely used as a murine model for human retinitis pigmentosa. Understanding the spatio-temporal patterns of cone degeneration is important for evaluating potential treatments. In the present study we performed a systematic characterization of the spatio-temporal patterns of S- and M/L-opsin+ cone outer segment and cell body degeneration in Rd1 mice, described the distribution and proportion of dual cones in Rd1 retinas, and examined the kinetics of microglial activation during the period of cone degeneration. Results: Outer segments of S- and M/L-cones degenerated far more rapidly than their somas. Loss of both S- and M/L-opsin⁺ outer segments was fundamentally complete by P21 in the central retina, and 90% complete by P45 in the peripheral retina. In comparison, degeneration of S- and M/L-opsin⁺ cell bodies proceeded at a slower rate. There was a marked hemispheric asymmetry in the rate of S-opsin⁺ and M/L-opsin⁺ cell body degeneration. M/L-opsin⁺ cones were more resilient to degeneration in the superior retina, whilst S-opsin⁺ cones were relatively preserved in the inferior retina. In addition, cone outer segment and cell body degeneration occurred far more rapidly in the central than the peripheral retina. At P14, the superior retina comprised a minority of genuine S-cones with a much greater complement of genuine M/L-opsin cones and dual cones, whilst the other three retinal quadrants had broadly similar numbers of genuine S-cones, genuine M/L-cones and dual cones. At P60, approximately 50% of surviving cones in the superior, nasal and temporal quadrants were dual cones. In contrast, the inferior peripheral retina at P60 contained almost exclusively genuine S-cones with a tiny minority of dual cones. Microglial number and activity were stimulated during rod breakdown, remained relatively high during cone outer segment degeneration and loss of cone somas in the central retina, and decreased thereafter in the period coincident with slow degeneration of cone cell bodies in the peripheral retina. Conclusion: The results of the present study provide valuable insights into cone degeneration in the Rd1 mouse, substantiating and extending conclusions drawn from earlier studies.en
dc.description.statementofresponsibilityDaniel S. Narayan, Jack Ao, John P.M. Wood, Robert J. Casson and Glyn Chidlowen
dc.publisherBioMed Central; Springer Natureen
dc.rights© The Author(s) 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.en
dc.subjectRd1 mouse; retinitis pigmentosa; cone photoreceptor; outer segment; degeneration; retina; S-opsin; M/L-opsin, dual coneen
dc.titleSpatio-temporal characterization of S- and M/L-cone degeneration in the Rd1 mouse model of retinitis pigmentosaen
dc.typeJournal articleen
pubs.library.collectionOpthalmology & Visual Sciences publicationsen
dc.identifier.orcidAo, J. [0000-0002-8546-8598]en
dc.identifier.orcidCasson, R. [0000-0003-2822-4076]en
dc.identifier.orcidChidlow, G. [0000-0001-7371-0239]en
Appears in Collections:Opthalmology & Visual Sciences publications

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