Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Scopus Web of Science® Altmetric
Type: Journal article
Title: Investigating toxin diversity and abundance in snake venom proteomes
Author: Tasoulis, T.
Pukala, T.L.
Isbister, G.K.
Citation: Frontiers in Pharmacology, 2022; 12:768015-1-768015-13
Publisher: Frontiers Media
Issue Date: 2022
ISSN: 1663-9812
Statement of
Theo Tasoulis, Tara L. Pukala and Geoffrey K. Isbister
Abstract: Understanding snake venom proteomes is becoming increasingly important to understand snake venom biology, evolution and especially clinical effects of venoms and approaches to antivenom development. To explore the current state of snake venom proteomics and transcriptomics we investigated venom proteomic methods, associations between methodological and biological variability and the diversity and abundance of protein families. We reviewed available studies on snake venom proteomes from September 2017 to April 2021. This included 81 studies characterising venom proteomes of 79 snake species, providing data on relative toxin abundance for 70 species and toxin diversity (number of different toxins) for 37 species. Methodologies utilised in these studies were summarised and compared. Several comparative studies showed that preliminary decomplexation of crude venom by chromatography leads to increased protein identification, as does the use of transcriptomics. Combining different methodological strategies in venomic approaches appears to maximize proteome coverage. 48% of studies used the RP-HPLC →1D SDS-PAGE →in-gel trypsin digestion → ESI -LC-MS/MS pathway. Protein quantification by MS1-based spectral intensity was used twice as commonly as MS2-based spectral counting (33–15 studies). Total toxin diversity was 25–225 toxins/species, with a median of 48. The relative mean abundance of the four dominant protein families was for elapids; 3FTx–52%, PLA₂–27%, SVMP–2.8%, and SVSP–0.1%, and for vipers: 3FTx–0.5%, PLA₂–24%, SVMP–27%, and SVSP–12%. Viper venoms were compositionally more complex than elapid venoms in terms of number of protein families making up most of the venom, in contrast, elapid venoms were made up of fewer, but more toxin diverse, protein families. No relationship was observed between relative toxin diversity and abundance. For equivalent comparisons to be made between studies, there is a need to clarify the differences between methodological approaches and for acceptance of a standardised protein classification, nomenclature and reporting procedure. Correctly measuring and comparing toxin diversity and abundance is essential for understanding biological, clinical and evolutionary implications of snake venom composition.
Keywords: Snake; venom; proteomics; toxin; protein family classification; transcriptomics; mass spectrometry
Rights: © 2022 Tasoulis, Pukala and Isbister. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2021.768015
Grant ID:
Appears in Collections:Zoology publications

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
hdl_134479.pdfPublished version2.27 MBAdobe PDFView/Open

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.