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|Title:||International Interlaboratory Comparison of Thermogravimetric Analysis of Graphene-Related Two-Dimensional Materials.|
|Citation:||Analytical Chemistry, 2023; 95(12):5176-8186|
|Publisher:||American Chemical Society|
|Pei Lay Yap, Farzaneh Farivar, Åsa K. Jämting, Victoria A. Coleman, Sam Gnaniah, Elisabeth Mansfield, Cheng Pu, Sandra Marcela Landi, Marcus Vinícius David, Emmanuel Flahaut, Mohammed Aizane, Michael Barnes, Mary Gallerneault, M. Dominique Locatelli, Sébastien Jacquinot, Carlton Gray Slough, Jörg Menzel, Stefan Schmölzer, Lingling Ren, Andrew J. Pollard, and Dusan Losic|
|Abstract:||Research on graphene-related two-dimensional (2D) materials (GR2Ms) in recent years is strongly moving from academia to industrial sectors with many new developed products and devices on the market. Characterization and quality control of the GR2Ms and their properties are critical for growing industrial translation, which requires the development of appropriate and reliable analytical methods. These challenges are recognized by International Organization for Standardization (ISO 229) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC 113) committees to facilitate the development of these methods and standards which are currently in progress. Toward these efforts, the aim of this study was to perform an international interlaboratory comparison (ILC), conducted under Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) Technical Working Area (TWA) 41 "Graphene and Related 2D Materials" to evaluate the performance (reproducibility and confidence) of the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) method as a potential new method for chemical characterization of GR2Ms. Three different types of representative and industrially manufactured GR2Ms samples, namely, pristine few-layer graphene (FLG), graphene oxide (GO), and reduced graphene oxide (rGO), were used and supplied to ILC participants to complete the study. The TGA method performance was evaluated by a series of measurements of selected parameters of the chemical and physical properties of these GR2Ms including the number of mass loss steps, thermal stability, temperature of maximum mass change rate (Tp) for each decomposition step, and the mass contents (%) of moisture, oxygen groups, carbon, and impurities (organic and non-combustible residue). TGA measurements determining these parameters were performed using the provided optimized TGA protocol on the same GR2Ms by 12 participants across academia, industry stakeholders, and national metrology institutes. This paper presents these results with corresponding statistical analysis showing low standard deviation and statistical conformity across all participants that confirm that the TGA method can be satisfactorily used for characterization of these parameters and the chemical characterization and quality control of GR2Ms. The common measurement uncertainty for each parameter, key contribution factors were identified with explanations and recommendations for their elimination and improvements toward their implementation for the development of the ISO/IEC standard for chemical characterization of GR2Ms.|
|Rights:||© 2023 American Chemical Society|
|Appears in Collections:||Chemical Engineering publications|
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