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Type: Journal article
Title: Insulin-induced hypoglycemia accelerates gastric emptying of solids and liquids in long-standing type 1 diabetes
Author: Russo, A.
Stevens, J.
Chen, R.
Gentilcore, D.
Burnet, R.
Horowitz, M.
Jones, K.
Citation: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2005; 90(8):4489-4495
Publisher: Endocrine Society
Issue Date: 2005
ISSN: 0021-972X
Statement of
Antonietta Russo, Julie E. Stevens, Richard Chen, Diana Gentilcore, Richard Burnet, Michael Horowitz, and Karen L. Jones
Abstract: CONTEXT: The rate of gastric emptying of carbohydrate is a major determinant of postprandial glycemia. In healthy subjects and patients with uncomplicated type 1 diabetes, there is evidence that gastric emptying may be accelerated by insulin-induced hypoglycemia. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the effects of acute hypoglycemia on gastric emptying in long-standing type 1 diabetes and evaluate whether the response to hypoglycemia is influenced by the rate of gastric emptying during euglycemia and/or autonomic dysfunction. DESIGN: Gastric emptying of a solid/liquid meal (100 g (99m)Tc-minced beef and 150 ml 67Ga-EDTA-labeled water) was measured by scintigraphy on 2 separate days, during hypoglycemia and euglycemia. SETTING: These studies took place at the Department of Nuclear Medicine, Positron Emission Tomography, and Bone Densitometry at the Royal Adelaide Hospital. PATIENTS: Twenty type 1 patients (4 female, 16 male; age, 45.9 +/- 2.3 yr; duration of known diabetes, 18.0 +/- 2.7 yr) were recruited from outpatient clinics and the Diabetes Centre at the Royal Adelaide Hospital. INTERVENTION: Hypoglycemia (approximately 2.6 mmol/liter) was established 15 min before and maintained for 45 min after meal consumption. On one of the days, autonomic nerve function was evaluated using cardiovascular reflex tests. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measure was gastric emptying during hypoglycemia when compared with euglycemia. RESULTS: Twelve of the 20 subjects had autonomic neuropathy. Gastric emptying of both solid (P < 0.001) and liquid (P < 0.05) was faster during hypoglycemia. The magnitude of this acceleration was greater when the rate of gastric emptying during euglycemia was slower (solid, percentage retention at 100 min, r = -0.52, P < 0.05; liquid, 50% emptying time, r = -0.82, P < 0.0001, but not influenced by autonomic nerve function). CONCLUSIONS: Insulin-induced hypoglycemia accelerates gastric emptying of solids and liquids in long-standing type 1 diabetes, even in those patients with delayed emptying, and is likely to be an important mechanism in the counter-regulation of hypoglycemia.
Keywords: Humans; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1; Hypoglycemia; Technetium; Gallium Radioisotopes; Insulin; Hypoglycemic Agents; Glucose Clamp Technique; Blood Pressure; Heart Rate; Drinking; Eating; Gastric Emptying; Adult; Middle Aged; Female; Male
Description: Copyright © 2005 by The Endocrine Society
RMID: 0020050847
DOI: 10.1210/jc.2005-0513
Appears in Collections:Medicine publications

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