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|Title:||Impact of extreme rainfall in the central Sudan during 1999 as a partial analogue for reconstructing early Holocene prehistoric environments|
|Citation:||Quaternary International, 2006; 150(1):82-94|
|Publisher:||Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd|
|Martin Williams and Justin Nottage|
|Abstract:||The year 1999 was an exceptionally wet year, with severe floods in China, India and Australia and very high flow in the Nile. In Sudan, the July rainfall was unusually early and heavy, and persistent rains throughout August and early September caused severe floods in much of central Sudan, including Khartoum. The synoptic conditions historically associated with extreme rainfall events in central Sudan include a warm equatorial Indian Ocean, a strong summer monsoon over both Africa and India, a northward shift of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone earlier and further north than usual, and the presence of deep, well-developed westerly air masses accompanied by a strong Tropical Easterly Jet that allowed more moisture transport into Africa from the South Atlantic via the Congo basin, leading to very heavy precipitation in the Ethiopian uplands and the central Sudan. The intense late wet season rains in 1999 caused a major canal in the Gezira Irrigation Area to break its banks and filled normally dry depressions between dunes with water, providing a partial analogue of early Holocene environments in this region when small groups of Later Stone Age peoples occupied the sandy ridges seasonally. Global Circulation Models cannot provide such detailed local information.|
|Description:||Copyright © 2006 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA All rights reserved|
|Appears in Collections:||Geography, Environment and Population publications|
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