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Type: Journal article
Title: Hysteresis and precession of a swirling jet normal to a wall
Author: Shtern, V.
Mi, J.
Citation: Physical Review E. (Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics), 2004; 69(1):016312-1-016312-11
Publisher: American Physical Soc
Issue Date: 2004
ISSN: 1539-3755
Statement of
V. Shtern, J. Mi
Abstract: Interaction of a swirling jet with a no-slip surface has striking features of fundamental and practical interest. Different flow states and transitions among them occur at the same conditions in combustors, vortex tubes, and tornadoes. The jet axis can undergo precession and bending in combustors; this precession enhances large-scale mixing and reduces emissions of NOx. To explore the mechanisms of these phenomena, we address conically similar swirling jets normal to a wall. In addition to the Serrin model of tornadolike flows, a new model is developed where the flow is singularity free on the axis. New analytical and numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations explain occurrence of multiple states and show that hysteresis is a common feature of wall-normal vortices or swirling jets no matter where sources of motion are located. Then we study the jet stability with the aid of a new approach accounting for deceleration and nonparallelism of the base flow. An appropriate transformation of variables reduces the stability problem for this strongly nonparallel flow to a set of ordinary differential equations. A particular flow whose stability is studied in detail is a half-line vortex normal to a rigid plane-a model of a tornado and of a swirling jet issuing from a nozzle in in a combustor. Helical counter-rotating disturbances appear to be first growing as Reynolds number increases. Disturbance frequency changes its sign along the neutral curve while the wave number remains positive. Short disturbance waves propagate downstream and long waves propagate upstream. This helical instability causes bending of the vortex axis and its precession-the effects observed in technological flows and in tornadoes.
Rights: ©2004 American Physical Society
RMID: 0020040138
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.69.016312
Appears in Collections:Mechanical Engineering publications

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