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|Title:||The effect of menopause on bone mineral density and bone-related biochemical variables in Indonesian women|
|Citation:||Clinical Endocrinology, 2007; 67(1):93-100|
|Publisher:||Blackwell Science Ltd|
|Maryantoro Oemardi, Michael Horowitz, Judith M. Wishart, Howard A. Morris, Allan G. Need, Peter D. O'Loughlin and B. E. Christopher Nordin|
|Abstract:||Objective To determine the effects of menopause on bone-related variables in Indonesian women and to compare them with corresponding data in Caucasian Australian women. Design A study of bone-related variables in women aged 45–55 years in Jakarta compared with corresponding historical data from Caucasian Australian women. Measurements Dietary intakes, bone mineral density (BMD) and calcium-related variables in blood and urine. Results Dietary calcium, phosphorus and protein intakes were significantly lower in the women from Jakarta than in those from Adelaide (all P < 0·001), probably because of lower milk consumption, but energy intake was similar in the two cities. Indonesian women were shorter and lighter than Australian women (P < 0·001) but had a comparable body mass index (BMI). The Indonesians also had a lower spinal BMD than the Australians but this was accounted for by the differences in height and weight between the two populations. The differences in serum and urinary calcium and phosphate and serum alkaline phosphatase across the menopause were comparable in Indonesian and Australian women but creatinine excretion was 25% lower in Jakarta than in Adelaide (P < 0·001) and this was probably sufficient to account for higher ratios of some urinary solutes to urinary creatinine in the Indonesians. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels were significantly lower (P < 0·001) and serum PTH levels significantly higher (P = 0·0045) in Jakarta than in Adelaide. Conclusions The differences in bone-related biochemical variables across the menopause were similar in the two populations, but calcium and protein intake and urine creatinine were lower in Indonesian than in Australian women. Serum 25OHD was lower and PTH higher in the Indonesian women, probably because of their darker skin, their practice of avoiding direct sunlight and the heavy atmospheric pollution in Jakarta.|
|Keywords:||Bone and Bones; Humans; Calcium, Dietary; Phosphorus, Dietary; Creatinine; Parathyroid Hormone; Alkaline Phosphatase; Vitamin D; Dietary Proteins; Absorptiometry, Photon; Menopause; Bone Density; Middle Aged; Asian Continental Ancestry Group; European Continental Ancestry Group; Indonesia; Female|
|Description:||The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com|
|Appears in Collections:||Medicine publications|
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