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Type: Journal article
Title: Lower eyelid anatomy: an update
Author: Hakizaki, H.
Malhotra, R.
Madge, S.
Selva-Nayagam, D.
Citation: Annals of Plastic Surgery, 2009; 63(3):344-351
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Issue Date: 2009
ISSN: 0148-7043
Abstract: The gross anatomy of the lower eyelid is analogous to that of the upper eyelid, however, the lower eyelid has a more simplified structure with less dynamic movement. Common malpositions of the lower eyelid include entropion and ectropion, rehabilitative surgery of which requires a thorough understanding of lower eyelid anatomy. Furthermore, precise anatomic knowledge is a prerequisite for both reconstructive and cosmetic lower eyelid surgery in order for it to be performed appropriately. In this review, we present the clinical anatomy of the structures of the lower eyelid, as well as highlighting relevant surgical implications. Featured here are the structure of the different eyelid lamellae, the lower eyelid retractors and their relations, the orbital septum, fat pad compartments, and Lockwood ligament.
Keywords: anatomy; lower eyelid; relevant tips; surgery
RMID: 0020092351
DOI: 10.1097/SAP.0b013e31818c4b22
Appears in Collections:Opthalmology & Visual Sciences publications

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