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dc.contributor.authorAthanasiov, P.en
dc.contributor.authorPrabhakaran, V.en
dc.contributor.authorSelva-Nayagam, D.en
dc.identifier.citationActa Ophthalmologica, 2008; 86(4):356-364en
dc.description.abstractEnophthalmos can be defined as a relative, posterior displacement of a normal-sized globe in relation to the bony orbital margin. Non-traumatic enophthalmos has a wide variety of clinical presentations and may be the first manifestation of a number of local or systemic conditions. It may present with cosmetic problems such as deep superior sulcus, pseudoptosis or eyelid retraction; or functional problems such as diplopia or exposure keratopathy. There are three main pathogenic mechanisms: structural alterations in the bony orbit; orbital fat atrophy; and retraction. Evaluation of enophthalmos patients includes orbital imaging and a thorough ophthalmic and systemic examination. In this review, we discuss the presenting features of non-traumatic enophthalmos and include a brief description of the more important causes. An approach to the clinical evaluation of these patients is also discussed together with a brief overview of the principles of management.en
dc.description.statementofresponsibilityPaul A. Athanasiov, Venkatesh C. Prabhakaran and Dinesh Selvaen
dc.publisherWiley-Blackwell Munksgaarden
dc.subjectenophthalmos; orbital fat atrophy; orbital fibrosis; orbital metastases; pseudoenophthalmos; silent sinus syndromeen
dc.titleNon-traumatic enophthalmos: a reviewen
dc.typeJournal articleen
pubs.library.collectionOpthalmology & Visual Sciences publicationsen
dc.identifier.orcidSelva-Nayagam, D. [0000-0002-2169-5417]en
Appears in Collections:Opthalmology & Visual Sciences publications

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