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|Title:||Steady-state pharmacokinetics of the enantiomers of perhexiline in CYP2D6 poor and extensive metabolizers administered Rac-perhexiline|
|Citation:||British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 2008; 65(3):347-354|
|Publisher:||Blackwell Publishing Ltd|
|Benjamin J. Davies, Megan K. Herbert, Janet K. Coller, Andrew A. Somogyi, Robert W. Milne & Benedetta C. Sallustio|
|Abstract:||UNLABELLED: What is already known about this subject. Perhexiline (PHX) is administered as a racemic mixture and exhibits enantioselective pharmacokinetics in both poor and extensive metabolizers of CYP2D6 (PM and EM, respectively). Extensive metabolism by CYP2D6 is primarily responsible for the observed enantioselectivity in EM, but the process responsible in PM is unknown. Analysis of the steady-state plasma concentration-time profiles of the enantiomers of PHX in PM and EM was undertaken in order to elucidate the observed enantioselectivity, particularly with respect to PM. What this study adds. This is the first study to examine the steady-state plasma concentration-time profiles of the enantiomers of PHX in EM and PM over the course of an interdosing interval. The apparent oral clearance of each enantiomer was calculated from their respective AUC rather than from trough concentrations and was enantioselective in both phenotypes, with higher apparent oral clearances of (-)-than (+)-PHX. Renal clearance, calculated for EM and subsequently assumed for PM, constitutes a greater proportion of the total apparent oral clearance of each enantiomer in PM than EM, but was not enantioselective and thus unable to explain the enantioselectivity observed in PM. AIMS: To determine the steady-state pharmacokinetics of perhexiline (PHX) enantiomers over one interdosing interval in CYP2D6 extensive and poor metabolizer (EM and PM, respectively) patients administered rac-PHX. To elucidate the processes responsible for enantioselectivity, particularly in PM patients. METHODS: Blood samples were taken over one interdosing interval from six EM and two PM patients at steady-state with respect to rac-PHX metabolism. Complete urine collections were taken from five EM patients. PHX concentrations in plasma and urine were determined with enantioselective high-performance liquid chromatography methods. RESULTS: EM patients had 16- and 10-fold greater median apparent oral clearances of (+)- and (-)-PHX, respectively, than PM patients (P < 0.05 for both) and required significantly larger doses of rac-PHX (69 vs. 4.2 microg kg(-1) h(-1), P < 0.05) to maintain therapeutic concentrations in plasma. Patient phenotypes were consistent with CYP2D6 genotypes. Both groups displayed enantioselective pharmacokinetics, with higher apparent oral clearances for (-)-PHX compared with (+)-PHX, although PM patients exhibited significantly greater enantioselectivity (P < 0.05). The renal clearance of PHX enantiomers was not enantioselective and accounted for <1% of the median apparent oral clearance of each enantiomer in EM patients. Assuming the same renal clearances for PM patients accounts for approximately 9 and 4% of their median apparent oral clearances of (+)- and (-)-PHX, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The enantioselective pharmacokinetics of PHX are primarily due to metabolism by CYP2D6 in EM patients. The mechanism responsible for the enantioselective pharmacokinetics of PHX in PM patients is unknown, but may be due to enantioselective biliary or intestinal excretion.|
|Keywords:||Humans; Perhexiline; Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6; Metabolic Clearance Rate; Polymorphism, Genetic; Stereoisomerism; Chemistry, Pharmaceutical; Time Factors; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Female; Male|
|Description:||The definitive version may be found at www.wiley.com|
|Appears in Collections:||Pharmacology publications|
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