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|Title:||Changes in Doppler flow velocity waveforms and fetal size at 20 weeks gestation among cigarette smokers|
|Citation:||BJOG, 2009; 116(10):1300-1306|
|Publisher:||Blackwell Publishing Ltd|
|EM Kho, RA North, E Chan, PR Stone, GA Dekker, LME McCowan on behalf of the SCOPE consortium|
|Abstract:||Objectives: To compare umbilical and uterine artery Doppler waveforms and fetal size at 20 weeks between smokers and nonsmokers. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Auckland, New Zealand and Adelaide, Australia. Population: Nulliparous participants in the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study. Methods: Self-reported smoking status was determined at 15 ± 1 weeks’ gestation. At the 20 ± 1 week anatomy scan, uterine and umbilical Doppler resistance indices (RI) and fetal measurements were compared between smokers and nonsmokers. Main outcomes measures: Umbilical and mean uterine artery Doppler RI values, abnormal umbilical and uterine Doppler (RI > 90th centile) and fetal biometry. Results: Among the 2459 women, 248 (10%) were smokers. Smokers had higher umbilical RI [0.75 (SD 0.06) versus 0.73 (0.06), P < 0.0001] and mean uterine RI [0.59 (0.09) versus 0.56 (0.10), P < 0.0001]. They were twice as likely to have an abnormal umbilical Doppler at 20 weeks compared with nonsmokers [n = 35 (14.6%) versus n = 156 (7.2%), OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.49–3.27]. This effect remained significant after adjusting for age, ethnicity, marital status, employment and BMI (adjusted OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.03–2.54). Smokers were more likely to have an abnormal mean uterine RI [n = 33 (13.7%) versus n = 198 (9.2%), OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.06–2.33], but this association was not significant after adjusting for confounders. Fetuses of women who smoked had a small reduction in femur length and estimated weight compared with nonsmokers. Conclusions: At 20 weeks’ gestation, women who smoke have higher umbilical artery RI, a surrogate measure for an abnormal placental villous vascular tree. This may contribute to later fetal growth restriction among smokers. Further research is needed to explore the clinical significance of these findings.|
|Keywords:||Doppler; fetal growth; small for gestational age; smoking|
|Rights:||© 2009 The Authors Journal compilation © RCOG 2009 BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology|
|Appears in Collections:||Obstetrics and Gynaecology publications|
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