Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Scopus Web of Science® Altmetric
Type: Journal article
Title: Factor structure and validity of the shoulder pain and disability index in a population-based study of people with shoulder symptoms
Author: Hill, C.
Lester, S.
Taylor, A.
Shanahan, M.
Gill, T.
Citation: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 2011; 12(8):1-6
Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd.
Issue Date: 2011
ISSN: 1471-2474
Statement of
Catherine L Hill, Susan Lester, Anne W Taylor, Michael E Shanahan, Tiffany K Gill
Abstract: Background: The Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) is a self-administered questionnaire that aims to measure pain and disability associated with shoulder disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the construct validity and factor structure of the SPADI in a population-based study of patients with self-reported chronic shoulder symptoms. Methods: The North West Adelaide Health Study is a representative longitudinal cohort study of people aged 18 years and over. The original sample was randomly selected and recruited by telephone interview. Overall, 3 206 participants returned to the clinic during the second stage (2004-2006) and were asked to report whether they had pain, aching or stiffness on most days in either of their shoulders. Data was also collected on body mass index and shoulder range of motion (ROM) and demographic factors. The SPADI (numeric rating scale) was administered to participants with shoulder symptoms. Principal components factor analysis, with varimax rotation of factor loadings, was used to assess subscale structure of SPADI. Correlations between the SPADI, shoulder ROM and SF-36 were performed. Results: Overall, 22.3% of participants indicated that they had pain, aching or stiffness in either of their shoulders. SPADI results were available for 588 of participants with current shoulder symptoms. The internal consistency of the SPADI subscales were high (Cronbach's alpha > 0.92). Two factors, explaining 61.4% of the total variance were extracted by factor analysis. These were interpreted as disability and pain respectively. There was a strong negative correlation between SPADI disability subscale scores and shoulder range of motion. SPADI disability, but not pain, subscale scores were correlated with age. Conclusions: The SPADI is a valid measure to assess pain and disability in people with shoulder pain in a population-based study. In this setting, the SPADI had a bidimensional structure with both pain and disability subscales.
Keywords: Shoulder Joint
Shoulder Pain
Disability Evaluation
Health Surveys
Severity of Illness Index
Cohort Studies
Longitudinal Studies
Reproducibility of Results
Aged, 80 and over
Middle Aged
Young Adult
Surveys and Questionnaires
Rights: © 2011 Hill et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-12-8
Published version:
Appears in Collections:Aurora harvest
Medicine publications

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
hdl_67233.pdfPublished version216.11 kBAdobe PDFView/Open

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.