Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Scopus Web of Science® Altmetric
Type: Journal article
Title: Pill content, dose and resulting plasma concentrations of 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in recreational 'ecstasy' users
Author: Morefield, K.
Keane, M.
Felgate, P.
White, J.
Irvine, R.
Citation: Addiction, 2011; 106(7):1293-1300
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Issue Date: 2011
ISSN: 0965-2140
Statement of
Kate M. Morefield, Michael Keane, Peter Felgate, Jason M. White & Rodney J. Irvine
Abstract: Aims: To improve our understanding of the pharmacology of 'ecstasy' in recreational environments; in particular, to describe the composition of ecstasy pills, patterns of ecstasy use and the relationship between dose of 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and resulting plasma concentrations. Design, setting and participants: A naturalistic observational study of 56 experienced 'ecstasy' users in recreational settings in Australia. Measurements: Drug use patterns (number of pills consumed, other drugs consumed). drug content of pills and resultant plasma concentrations of MDMA and related drugs were assessed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Findings: Ecstasy pills generally contained MDMA, but this was often combined with other drugs such as 3,4-methylendioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) and methamphetamine. The dose of MDMA per pill ranged from 0 to 245 mg and users consumed from one-half to five pills, with the total dose consumed ranging up to 280 mg. Plasma concentrations of MDMA increased with number of pills consumed and cumulative MDMA dose. Use of larger numbers of pills was associated with extended exposure to the drug. Conclusions: MDMA is the major active drug in ecstasy pills, but there is a high degree of variation in doses. Use of multiple pills over the course of one session is common and results in a sustained increase in MDMA plasma concentrations over a number of hours. This is likely to lead to a much greater exposure of the brain to MDMA than would be predicted from controlled single-dose pharmacokinetic studies.
Keywords: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; drug concentrations; drug dose; ecstasy; MDMA; pill content.
Rights: © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction
RMID: 0020109928
DOI: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03399.x
Appears in Collections:Pharmacology publications

Files in This Item:
There are no files associated with this item.

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.