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Type: Journal article
Title: Acute vision in the giant Cambrian predator Anomalocaris and the origin of compound eyes
Author: Paterson, J.
Garcia-Bellido, D.
Lee, M.
Brock, G.
Jago, J.
Edgecombe, G.
Citation: Nature, 2011; 480(7376):237-240
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Issue Date: 2011
ISSN: 0028-0836
Statement of
John R. Paterson, Diego C. García-Bellido, Michael S. Y. Lee, Glenn A. Brock, James B. Jago and Gregory D. Edgecombe
Abstract: Until recently, intricate details of the optical design of non-biomineralized arthropod eyes remained elusive in Cambrian Burgess-Shale-type deposits, despite exceptional preservation of soft-part anatomy in such Konservat-Lagerstätten. The structure and development of ommatidia in arthropod compound eyes support a single origin some time before the latest common ancestor of crown-group arthropods, but the appearance of compound eyes in the arthropod stem group has been poorly constrained in the absence of adequate fossils. Here we report 2-3-cm paired eyes from the early Cambrian (approximately 515 million years old) Emu Bay Shale of South Australia, assigned to the Cambrian apex predator Anomalocaris. Their preserved visual surfaces are composed of at least 16,000 hexagonally packed ommatidial lenses (in a single eye), rivalling the most acute compound eyes in modern arthropods. The specimens show two distinct taphonomic modes, preserved as iron oxide (after pyrite) and calcium phosphate, demonstrating that disparate styles of early diagenetic mineralization can replicate the same type of extracellular tissue (that is, cuticle) within a single Burgess-Shale-type deposit. These fossils also provide compelling evidence for the arthropod affinities of anomalocaridids, push the origin of compound eyes deeper down the arthropod stem lineage, and indicate that the compound eye evolved before such features as a hardened exoskeleton. The inferred acuity of the anomalocaridid eye is consistent with other evidence that these animals were highly mobile visual predators in the water column. The existence of large, macrophagous nektonic predators possessing sharp vision--such as Anomalocaris--within the early Cambrian ecosystem probably helped to accelerate the escalatory 'arms race' that began over half a billion years ago.
Keywords: Animals; Arthropods; Predatory Behavior; Geologic Sediments; Fossils; History, Ancient; Australia; Extinction, Biological; Compound Eye, Arthropod; Vision, Ocular; Biological Evolution
Rights: ©2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited
RMID: 0020115172
DOI: 10.1038/nature10689
Grant ID:
Appears in Collections:Earth and Environmental Sciences publications
Environment Institute publications

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