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Type: Journal article
Title: Interleukin-6 is an efficacious marker of axonal transport disruption during experimental glaucoma and stimulates neuritogenesis in cultured retinal ganglion cells
Author: Chidlow, G.
Wood, J.
Ebneter, A.
Casson, R.
Citation: Neurobiology of Disease, 2012; 48(3):568-581
Publisher: Academic Press Inc
Issue Date: 2012
ISSN: 0969-9961
Statement of
Glyn Chidlow, John P.M. Wood, Andreas Ebneter, Robert J. Casson
Abstract: It is increasingly recognised that chronically activated glia contribute to the pathology of various neurodegenerative diseases, including glaucoma. One means by which this can occur is through the release of neurotoxic, proinflammatory factors. In the current study, we therefore investigated the spatio-temporal patterns of expression of three such cytokines, IL-1β, TNFα and IL-6, in a validated rat model of experimental glaucoma. First, only weak evidence was found for increased expression of IL-1β and TNFα following induction of ocular hypertension. Second, and much more striking, was that robust evidence was uncovered showing IL-6 to be synthesised by injured retinal ganglion cells following elevation of intraocular pressure and transported in an orthograde fashion along the nerve, accumulating at sites of axonal disruption in the optic nerve head. Verification that IL-6 represents a novel marker of disrupted axonal transport in this model was obtained by performing double labelling immunofluorescence with recognised markers of fast axonal transport. The stimulus for IL-6 synthesis and axonal transport during experimental glaucoma arose from axonal injury rather than ocular hypertension, as the response was identical after optic nerve crush and bilateral occlusion of the carotid arteries, each of which is independent of elevated intraocular pressure. Moreover, the response of IL-6 was not a generalised feature of the gp130 family of cytokines, as it was not mimicked by another family member, ciliary neurotrophic factor. Finally, further study suggested that IL-6 may be an early part of the endogenous regenerative response as the cytokine colocalised with growth-associated membrane phosphoprotein-43 in some putative regenerating axons, and potently stimulated neuritogenesis in retinal ganglion cells in culture, an effect that was additive to that of ciliary neurotrophic factor. These data comprise clear evidence that IL-6 is actively involved in the attempt of injured retinal ganglion cells to regenerate their axons.
Keywords: Glaucoma; Retinal ganglion cell; Optic nerve head; Axonal transport; Interleukin-6; Proinflammatory cytokines; Neuritogenesis
Rights: © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
RMID: 0020122685
DOI: 10.1016/j.nbd.2012.07.026
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Appears in Collections:Opthalmology & Visual Sciences publications

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