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|Title:||The effect of pharmacist-provided non-dispensing services on patient outcomes, health service utilisation and costs in low- and middle-income countries|
|Citation:||The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2013; 2(2):1-74|
|Publisher:||Update Software Ltd|
|S Pande, JE Hiller, N Nkansah, L Bero|
|Abstract:||BACKGROUND The role of pharmacists has expanded beyond dispensing and packaging over the past two decades, and now includes ensuring rational use of drugs, improving clinical outcomes and promoting health status by working with the public and other healthcare professionals. OBJECTIVES To examine the effect of pharmacist-provided non-dispensing services on patient outcomes, health service utilisation and costs in low- and middle-income countries. SEARCH METHODS Studies were identified by electronically searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library (February 2010), MEDLINE (1949 to February 2010), Scopus (1960 to March 2010) and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970 to January 2010) databases. An update of this review is currently ongoing. The search was re-run September 2012 and the potentially relevant studies are awaiting classification. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted time series analyses comparing 1. pharmacist-provided non-dispensing services targeted at patients versus (a) the same services provided by other healthcare professionals, (b) the same services provided by untrained health workers, and (c) usual care; and 2. pharmacist-provided non-dispensing services targeted at healthcare professionals versus (a) the same services provided by other healthcare professionals, (b) the same services provided by untrained health workers, and (c) usual care in low- and middle-income countries. The research sites must have been located in low or middle income countries according to World Bank Group 2009 at the time of the study, regardless of the location or the origin of the researchers. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two authors independently reviewed studies for inclusion in the review. Two review authors independently extracted data for each study. Risk of bias of the included studies was also assessed independently by two authors. MAIN RESULTS Twelve studies comparing pharmacist-provided services versus usual care were included in this review. Of the 12 studies, seven were from lower middle income countries and five were from upper middle income countries. Eleven studies examined pharmacist-provided services targeted at patients and one study evaluated pharmacist interventions targeted at healthcare professionals. Pharmacist-provided services targeting patients resulted in a small improvement of clinical outcomes such as blood pressure (-25 mm Hg/-6 mm Hg and -4.56 mm Hg/-2.45 mm Hg), blood glucose (-39.84 mg/dl and -16.16 mg/dl), blood cholesterol (-25.7 mg/dl)/ triglyceride levels (-80.1 mg/dl) and asthma outcomes (peak expiratory flow rate 1.76 l/min). Moreover, there was a small improvement in the quality of life, although four studies did not report the effect size explicitly. Health service utilisation, such as rate of hospitalisation and general practice and emergency room visits, was also found to be reduced by the patient targeted pharmacist-provided services. A single study examined the effect of patient targeted pharmacist interventions on medical expenses and the cost was found to be reduced. A single study that examined pharmacist services that targeted healthcare professionals demonstrated a very small impact on asthma symptom scores. No studies assessing the impact of pharmacist-provided non-dispensing services that targeted healthcare professionals reported health service utilisation and cost outcomes. Overall, five studies did not adequately report the numerical data for outcomes but instead reported qualitative statements about results, which prevented an estimation of the effect size. Studies for the comparison of patient targeted services provided by pharmacists versus the same services provided by other healthcare professionals or untrained healthcare workers were not found. Similarly, studies for the comparison of healthcare professional targeted services...|
|Keywords:||Humans; Treatment Outcome; Professional Role; Health Status; Developing Countries; Health Promotion; Health Services; Pharmaceutical Services; Costs and Cost Analysis; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic|
|Rights:||Copyright © 2013 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.|
|Appears in Collections:||Public Health publications|
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