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|Title:||Facial soft tissue depth statistics and enhanced point estimators for craniofacial identification: the debut of the shorth and the 75-shormax|
|Citation:||Journal of Forensic Sciences, 2013; 58(6):1439-1457|
|Publisher:||John Wiley & Sons|
|Carl N. Stephan, Ellie K. Simpson, John E. Byrd|
|Abstract:||Several methods that have customarily been used in craniofacial identification to describe facial soft tissue depths (FSTDs) implore improvement. They include the calculation of arithmetic means for skewed data, omission of concern for measurement uncertainty, oversight of effect size, and misuse of statistical significance tests (e.g., p-values for strength of association). This paper redresses these limitations using FSTDs from 10 prior studies (N = 516). Measurement uncertainty was large (>20% of the FSTD), skewness (≥0.8) existed at 11 of the 23 FSTD landmarks examined, and sex and age each explained <4% of the total FSTD variance (η2 calculated as part of MANOVA). These results call for a new and improved conceptualization of FSTDs, which is attained by the replacement of arithmetic means with shorths and 75-shormaxes. The outcomes of this implementation are dramatic reduction in FSTD complexity; improved data accuracy; and new data-driven standards for casework application of methods.|
|Keywords:||Forensic science; facial approximation; facial reconstruction; photographic superimposition; video superimposition; facial soft tissue thickness; skeletal identification|
|Rights:||© 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences|
|Appears in Collections:||Pathology publications|
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