Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2440/51847
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Type: Journal article
Title: Non-traumatic enophthalmos: a review
Author: Athanasiov, P.
Prabhakaran, V.
Selva-Nayagam, D.
Citation: Acta Ophthalmologica, 2008; 86(4):356-364
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell Munksgaard
Issue Date: 2008
ISSN: 1755-375X
1755-3768
Statement of
Responsibility: 
Paul A. Athanasiov, Venkatesh C. Prabhakaran and Dinesh Selva
Abstract: Enophthalmos can be defined as a relative, posterior displacement of a normal-sized globe in relation to the bony orbital margin. Non-traumatic enophthalmos has a wide variety of clinical presentations and may be the first manifestation of a number of local or systemic conditions. It may present with cosmetic problems such as deep superior sulcus, pseudoptosis or eyelid retraction; or functional problems such as diplopia or exposure keratopathy. There are three main pathogenic mechanisms: structural alterations in the bony orbit; orbital fat atrophy; and retraction. Evaluation of enophthalmos patients includes orbital imaging and a thorough ophthalmic and systemic examination. In this review, we discuss the presenting features of non-traumatic enophthalmos and include a brief description of the more important causes. An approach to the clinical evaluation of these patients is also discussed together with a brief overview of the principles of management.
Keywords: enophthalmos; orbital fat atrophy; orbital fibrosis; orbital metastases; pseudoenophthalmos; silent sinus syndrome
RMID: 0020080875
DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-3768.2007.01152.x
Appears in Collections:Opthalmology & Visual Sciences publications

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